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With how much you drive your Juke, you might as well just get some NT01s. I have them on my Bug and they are extra sticky! FWD Juke traction issues are real...
Thats the plan. Should get 3 years out of them.

Maybe the N555's too. Not sure.
 

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Storm Tropper,

Absolutely, no replacement for AWD. The EVO sounds like fun, I'm getting ready to pull mine out of storage. Might drop it off with AMS and have my Cosworth cams installed but other than that gonna be super busy getting the Juke running before the end of the year. Turbo should work out well, I don't have crazy goals. If I can hit maybe 280-290 w.h.p. on the CVT I'd be happy. Highest I've seen on the stock frame turbo for a CVT is around 255 whp.

Yeah, turbo should be a fun little project. Thanks to MacGyver for pushing me to try the Turbobay w/52mm wheel, but this is $500 vs. spending nearly $1000. I like running stock frame turbo's, keeps the engine compartment from looking like a science project. The CVT can't handle much more than a 16g sized turbo anyway, so for us CVT owners this might be the simplest solution. Wish Mamba would just sell the dang turbo like this from the get go, they have all the parts already. Might be worth asking them to reconfigure the turbo this way.
I am glad I pushed you. Haha. But thanks in return for finding a good alternative that will cost less because the cost of redoing the turbo and a tune is full price. Its not a retune when you upgrade the turbo. You pay for a new license.
 

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Discussion Starter #243
Mac,

Thanks for the push...lol. Yeah, I suppose we should thank Mambatek too. The 19T comes factory with the TD04HL on some Volvo's, so it's a good match and probably more reliable in terms of thrust loading. Actually hoping the turbine upgrade will boost fuel economy. I may try a custom 3" downpipe to squeeze every ounce out of the new turbo in the future. At this point I gotta just wrap this R&D project and get the car running.
 

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Thats True. We want to see all your hard work pay off as much as you do.
 

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Discussion Starter #245
Parts came in. Little surprise. Looks like Mamba threw in a new turbine/manifold gasket and turbine/downpipe gasket for free. Also gave me a stainless exhaust manifold stud and copper locking nut kit for free as well, didn't cross my mind to get these upgrades. I already have the FR stainless oil feedline, just need the coolant hose kit and I'm rocking. I'd say they are an awesome vendor. I also ordered up some steel 12 point compressor wheel nuts as the stock Mamba is some hokey copper nut, call me picky. The turbine wheel is nice though, didn't measure it but I'm sure it's 45.6/52mm. Material is unknown but I think it's Inconel. The turbine housing is also freshly machined, and I like that they didn't port the wastegate. This'll allow the turbo to hold more boost without dropping off. All parts are brand spanking new, totally worth the $393.

Turbine wheel design:
Well, this is an interesting design. It's 11 blades vs. 12 blades for the smaller TD04L. The wheel actually has a cast back-sweep or "clip" of about 2-3* give or take, definitely not dead straight like the standard MHI wheels, but not as clipped/backcut as the Garrett wheels either. The blade root is NOT an aerofoil design, more straight in that respect. I think this weakens the blade a bit but keeps the flowrate higher at the root. The hub diameter is pretty beefy compared to the 9 blade wheel, I like that. The blade leading edges and thickness are almost knife like, kinda weird compared to the Garrett wheels which are stubby and thick, again these would help flow rates. These are NOT true MHI wheels, but a Mambatek copy or iteration. I think for it's size, this wheel would actually outflow a Garrett wheel.

Next steps are to carefully rebox this stuff and send it to G-pop shop for VSR balancing and a full rebuild. Should take about 1-2 weeks. Gonna be nice to have a shop do all the work for me. Would have loved to rebuild it myself but I like having a professional dynamic balance the entire CHRA. I think this is going to be a very nice little alternative to a Blouch 16g on a CVT for those that want a straight up install without all the customization hassle. I'm putting this turbo at about 350 h.p. very easily, maybe 380 h.p. on higher boost, cams, full bolt-ons. I'd have liked to rocked an MHI EVO 16g or similar but in reality this turbo is about 95% of what the typical CVT can handle anyway, so it's a moot point.



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Discussion Starter #246 (Edited)
Just measured the TD04HL turbine wheel. It's a measured 3* turbine clip cast into the blade design, like a christmas tree shape in the side profile with slightly downward sloping blades, I'll post a picture of this later. This tends to unshroud the blade to give it some extra flow without losing too much area for spinning the turbine up. The MHI wheels tend to be very quick spooling but do have some backpressure from the higher blade counts (12-blades) and straight un-clipped designs, especially the older TD04 and TD05H types. The 19T compressor wheel, especially the GTX billet extended tip 11-blade type are extremely quick spooling and hard hitting, almost too much so from my research. So the turbine clipping might actually help soften this up a bit and balance the turbo more.

Below is a picture of the smaller 9-blade TD04L vs. the standard 12-blade TD04L. The clip is clearly visible, probably closer to a 10* clip actually but this illustrates the concept. Normally, this would destroy turbine efficiency, but you can see they increased the blade tip "height" and gained back any lost surface area to drive the turbine. This is only possible if you design this feature into the casting. Normally a clipped wheel is a big compromise and a last resort. The TD04HL doesn't need this radical of a change because it's so much bigger in diameter. Interesting stuff.

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The Juke/MHI 5cm^2 housing is bored out significantly for the larger TD04HL wheel. In fact, it's actually slightly under-cutting the wastegate port casting, shrouding the turbine wheel. I'm gonna have to take pictures of this to explain it. But basically a bit of the turbine casting actually now hangs in front of the turbine wheel smaller diameter exducer on the exit. I might have to actually port this with a grinder to aerodynamically to unshroud the wheel.

Once I get it back from G-pop shop I'll post up all the pics.
 

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Discussion Starter #247 (Edited)
Here is the definitive thread on the TD04HL turbine upgrade:


Ultimately, the owner used a 23T-TD04HL-9 blade with 7 cm^2 turbine housing to hit 363 whp @ 28 psi on a Fiesta ST 1.6L with stock camshafts/head. Mambatek offer something very similar which is the TD04HL-22T 9 blade turbine, basically an MHI 18G with a 50.4/68mm compressor wheel. This might be considered equal to an EVO3-16g or MHI 18G give or take.

Here's a great MHI Performance turbo catalog showing EVERY MHI and Turbine option plus much more:


You can see here the differences between the 19T, 20T, 16g (ie. small), 16g-6 (i.e. EVO 16g), 18g, 20g, etc.

Mambatek also offer the 20T compressor wheel which is 47mm/58mm or +1mm bigger than a 19T, this would actually fit on the Juke if the compressor were modified.

Here are some pics of my stock Mambatek TD04L-19T 12-blade and the mocked up TD04HL-19T 11-blade before I send it out. The differences side by side are evident. The TD04L is smaller with 12 blades. Mambatek now come standard with the high flow TD04L 9-blade which is a middle ground between the (2), so you guys buying new Mamba turbos will get a nicely upgraded version.

Turbine housings:

So I had a spare 7cm^2 housing laying around from a TD05H-16g turbo and took some measurements. For reference this turbine housing type and a TD05H wheel flowed about 465 hp (404 w.h.p.) on my Eclipse, so they can move some airflow. I took the "width" x "height" of the nozzle section right above the turbine wheel. It came out to something like 29.3mm x 25.9mm = 7.59 cm^2 area. This is very close to the MHI factory rating. The Juke 5cm^2 housing measured about 27.64mm x 22.72mm = 7.55 cm^2 at the nozzle. Now, this doesn't make sense because it is MUCH larger than the 5cm^2 rating and the casting has 050 which is the turbine housing area rating. Yet visually they look the nearly identical area size.

Measuring the turbine snail "R" or radius on the 7cm^2 housing it's about 51mm, while on the Juke 5cm^2 housing it's smaller at 46mm. Anyway, this gives the A & R for A/R ratio conversion. If I were then to convert this to A/R it would be 0.58 A/R for the 7 cm^2 housing and 0.65 A/R for the 5cm^2 housing on the Juke. To give some context my EVO X runs a TD05H wheel in a 12 cm^2 housing, roughly giving a 0.93 A/R.

OK, so the A/R needs to be compared WITHIN that turbine wheel family size, in this case the TD04HL. Well, Garrett have their 76 trim 47mm/54mm wheel used on their GT2860R turbo which is close in size to the TD04HL. If I look at the 76 trim turbine maps for different A/R 0.57, 0.64, 0.72, 0.86 I get a good idea how they flow compared to each other. Well the 0.57 flows about 12 lb/min, the 0.64 flows 16.25 lb/min, 0.72 flows 17.25 lb/min, the 0.86 flows 19.5 lb/min. So I generally know the TD04HL can flow about 400 hp in a well supported housing, but unknown as to how the Juke turbine housing would affect it. Looking at the 0.64 A/R flow rates from the 76 trim it tells me that the flow is about midrange in that A/R housing, thus I could deduce the same here.

In reality I won't know the performance until it's mounted on the car. I'm thinking about getting the 20T compressor as well and just upgrading everything while I'm in there as G-pop shop can machine the compressor housing to fit the larger compressor wheel. The 20T come on stock on the factory TD04HL-22TK32S-7 so it's a well matched turbo.




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Discussion Starter #248 (Edited)
Since I'm bored, I figured I'd look at the turbo and try and mount it on the head.

Turbine Fitment:
Well........surprise surprise, the Mamba turbine housing stud holes doesn't match the OEM exhaust manifold....no it doesn't. I purchased their OE Nissan (i.e. MHI) machined turbine housing (TD04HL) and it's definitely a brand new OEM Nissan/MHI (49335-10840), but not the one that comes with my Mamba TD04L (49335-10800). I think my turbo is about 3-4 years old, looking at their website they now have the right turbine housing P/N on their current turbos. The (2) stud holes are off by a good amount. Not sure how the mix up happened but it won't matter anyway, new housing is the correct/current one.

Exhaust Manifold:
Pictures below show the OE exhaust manifold. First thought is: Yeah let's yank that bad boy out and swap in a tubular header. Well......the OE Juke manifold is already essentially a racing header design and I don't see any real major gains replacing it with a tubular header, not below 400 hp. It looks very much like a Forced performance header for a DSM or the cast HKS or Turbonetics T3 manifolds from way back when.

The inside runners are 42.5mm x 26.6mm, the collector is 1.820" I.D. The runners look closer in size to an EVO 8/9 when I ported one ages ago, I remember those divided manifolds having small runners......like the cute little Juke does. The flow divider has some nasty rough edges and casting parting lines that need removing. I'll be porting the collector out to 1.900" I.D. and streamlining/knife edging the flow divider, radiusing the bends into the collector, & radiusing the bends from the head/manifold flange side. It should improve flow by about 10-13%. I'll be keeping the "fire ring" step to protect the gaskets, but it'll get moderately thinned out when I port it. This'll all get match ported to the turbine housing inlet as well. The manifold runners are about 1.520 in^2 in cross section, so they aren't too small. Even the merge collector is a vertical style with runners coming in parallel to each other then down firing into the turbine but at a slight tangential angle. The flow divider is just that, protecting one firing cylinder from crashing into another. It should NEVER be removed as it destroys horsepower and creates serious turbo lag. Think cheap version of a divided turbine. Amateurs will cut that flow divider down to nothing and hog out the collector port, destroying spoolup and creating backpressure. Anyway, the merge collector is the main area of focus and a choke point on many turbo cars.

Finally, the manifold runners are NOT equal length but they never are unless you run some serious tubular headers, no biggie here. The casting wall thickness is about 0.180" so there isn't a ton of material that can be removed for porting. This explains why the manifold seems so tiny from the outside, mostly because it's thin casting. With the new turbo capable of nearly 400 hp, the collector/merge will be critical for smooth flow and reduced backpressure. I'm buying a brand new manifold so I won't be porting this one, this is just for reference. I have some experience with MHI turbo and manifolds, so this is typically how it's done and all the porting does make a nice small difference when all added up, plus it's free for me.

Downpipe:
I'm also going to be revising my GTM 2.5" downpipe. I'll be putting a 2.5" V-band clamp off the 1st bend in the tube vertical section to facilitate easier removal of the turbo. No need to drop the transfer case or anything like that for a turbo swap. This'll make a turbo removal much easier because there is no fighting with broken stud bolts on the turbine exit, the upper dowpipe upper just slips out with the turbo. The exhaust manifold will be Swain Tech coated so I can remove the manifold heatshield......that's the goal. Firewall may get extra shielding along with the hood to compensate for this, but I think it should be fine. This'll also make access to the head/manifold stud nuts way easier for pulling the manifold as well when there is a need. The turbine housing heatshield will probably be an aftermarket along with the stock gasket heat shield protecting the valve cover. The goal is to make a turbo swap a 5-6 hour job, turbine/downpipe swap maybe 1 hr., not some multiple weekend deal, specially on the AWD.

The GTM downpipe flange to the turbine housing has a HUGE internal mismatch though. I'll take some pictures but it looks like I'll be doing some serious porting of the flange to get things smoothed out so there isn't any turbulence. I may also Swain Tech thermal coat the downpipe to keep the heat down, I don't like wrapping pipes with heat wrap. It should look pretty cool once it's all bolted-on.


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Always so nice to see your work. Once I get tires. Then Coilovers. I can unbolt and Rebolt a PBoglio Turbo.......
 

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Discussion Starter #250
Lol, it’s getting there. This is basically a bolt in once G-pop are finished with it. The downpipe is the only custom work and it should be a breeze for my welding guy. I might just cut it, fixture it, then tack it for the welding guy. First I’ll build up a fixture out of wood or something to realign it, then chop it apart and tack it back together.
 

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Discussion Starter #251
Figured I'd post up some stuff while I'm bored in the general Illinois quarantine for COVID-19.

So, as I've documented in my engine rebuild thread I have done a few engine upgrades, notably:

Engine mods:

Carrillo pistons 10.0:1 compression
Crower cams 214* intake/218* exhaust, +0 intake lift/+1mm exhaust lift
2J FMIC, approximately 90% efficient core
Cylinder head port work: increase head flow approx. from 150 cfm to 225 cfm as a guess
Turbo upgrade: 38-40 lb/min compressor/turbine @ 65-73% compressor efficiency
Stock 1.235" intake valves/1.020" exhaust valves with valve job

These specs are then input into the Desktop Dyno 2000 software to accurately model the horsepower targets and areas of improvement. The software assumes that the A/F ratio and ignition timing are optimized for best BSFC or optimal power per lb/fuel used. It's tough to show on here but adjusting the parameters will explain what is going on. Basically, the reason the Juke is limited in power is due to the exhaust cam duration and exhaust valve diameter. This is what might be termed "choke" flow condition. The cylinder head work mostly benefited the intake valves & ports, while the camshaft upgrades helped the exhaust valves breathe better. My portwork was limited on the exhaust side due to the OEM cylinder head design. So for lack of a better word the Juke is exhaust limited in the head unless you keep upping the boost, but to a point the compressor is limited in that respect, see below.

I ran the simulation and with my current engine configuration which showed 366 hp @ 22 psi around 6000-6500 rpms. The pressure ratio PR = 2.45 which is 22 psi or 36.7 psia. The MHI 19T compressor wheel is capable of 3.0-3.3 pressure ratio (29.4 - 33.8 psig) and about 38.0- ~ 40 lb/min max choke flow, depending on the version (i.e. 19T or 19TK32S). The Mambatek 19T is a hot-rodded billet version of the MHI 19T compressor and basically is an MHI/Garrett hybrid compressor design. The goal is to operate the engine in the high efficiency range of the compressor between 65-75% efficiency even at near max power, so a slightly upsized compressor for my power goals is what is optimal. This'll allow the wastegate to relieve some engine backpressure because less work is needed from the turbine to spin it. Similar reason why I upsized the turbine wheel to the TD04HL-11 You can now see how all engine/turbo/bolt-on elements are at play here. Even the intercooler efficiency affects engine output to a certain degree.

On the simulated dyno, I believe the 1.6L MR16DDT can actually keep making power thru to 7500 rpms, something the DesktopDyno seems to have underestimated. The option for a turbo match wasn't quite right and it takes some serious fudging to get it to provide realistic power estimates, so some of the turbo inputs might seem off. The newer software has all the current available popular turbos. Anyway, the power estimate correlates well with the Mambatek TD04HL-11/19T turbo I plan on running. You can see how a much bigger turbo would generally be a waste of money without massive engine work or megaboost levels. I think a GTX2860 GenII turbo would be a perfect fit at 420 h.p. rating, but the Mambatek will do nicely as well for my street driving.

I played with an option to increase the exhaust valves to 1.060" with +1mm oversize valves, changing pistons to 10.5:1 compression, and increasing the exhaust duration to 221*. That pushed the motor to nearly 410 h.p. @ 22 psi. For someone who is serious, that is certainly a possibility with enough effort and money, but for my street car I am stopping at this point.

Anyway, hopefully this all shows you the "engineering" side of engine development or tuning I guess. Very simple basic rules, well applied techniques.


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Discussion Starter #252
Further updates:

Started ordering up some turbo parts:
  • Mamba 3" compressor inlet adapter (Item #: K026-0036)
  • Mamba exhaust manifold stud kit (16 pc) (Item #: K044-0029-16-1)
  • Mamba 19T Billet (6+6 blade) compressor wheel w/extended tip (Item #: 010-D441 )
  • Mamba Stg III TD04/TD04HL turbo rebuild kit w/upgraded thrust bearing & collar (+40 psi capable) (Item #: 015-0040 )
  • Knipex forged internal snap ring pliers (1 37/64" thru 3 15/16") for Compressor housing snap ring ( PN 4821J31)
  • Vibrant .065" oil restrictor 3-AN x 1/8 NPT fitting (PN 10288)
Decided to rebuild the Mamba turbo my self and add the new 19T (6+6) billet compressor wheel along with the high flow TD04HL-11 turbine. The newer (6+6) compressor wheel has a higher flow rate than the older (11) blade billet compressor I currently have, they both are interchangeable in the upgraded turbo. The turbo rebuild kit is probably not needed but if I mess up an o-ring, gap ring, or whatever I'll be covered. G-Pop offered to rebuild the turbo while they VSR balanced it but I looked at their rebuild price and it was $350-$450, don't want to risk getting charged that much. The VSR balancing is $100 and they don't have to do a rebuild to do that.

Also, I'll be custom welding a 30-45* bend onto the Mamba 3" compressor inlet pipe to fit with an Injen 3" CAI pipe and some silicon hose. The compressor housing is 52mm, while the Mamba inlet pipe is tapered from 57mm to about 70mm I.D., so I'll have to do some port-work on the compressor housing to match fit everything. This should allow the turbo to breathe extremely well. I'm going to cut off the PVC & compressor bypass return from the stock cast aluminum inlet pipe and essentially splice-weld it onto the 3" pipe so it'll all fit like a stock setup. This'll give a stock like fitment for the Diverter Valve/CBV and PVC return hoses. Probably wrinkle coat that compressor inlet pipe red like the Injen CAI pipes so it all matches up.

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Yeah the intake to me, chokes, the way Injen etc designed it. Should flow better. Just one more piece in your build that has less restriction.
 

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So does Mamba make the Full blown better setup that you can just buy? I would rather keep my old mamba as a backup. Its not too hard to unbolt rebolt.
 

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Why not delete the return side of the by pass valve and vent to atmosphere
 

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Discussion Starter #256 (Edited)
So does Mamba make the Full blown better setup that you can just buy? I would rather keep my old mamba as a backup. Its not too hard to unbolt rebolt.
They don't right now but that might change. You could always buy the turbobay version which is pretty much what I’m building. I think they run $1,000 to $1200. They clip the turbine wheel so it’ll spool a bit slower then mine. I was looking at some guy who ran a 23t compressor and a TD04hl 9 blade turbine and put down like 360 whp on a Ford Fiesta 1.6l. I prefer bolt on turbos for the OEM fitment.
 

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Discussion Starter #257
Why not delete the return side of the by pass valve and vent to atmosphere
Probably could vent it if I ran the synapse diverter. Little bit loud for my taste so I’ll be recircing it. I like the stock fitment of all the hoses and all that stuff plus it causes fewer drive ability issues.
 

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What if I show you my secret setup that I never share with forum, it's been on for over 1 year and still works great not to mention you can tune sound and it's all off the shelf turbosmart stuff!
 

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What if I show you my secret setup that I never share with forum, it's been on for over 1 year and still works great not to mention you can tune sound and it's all off the shelf turbosmart stuff!
Do it!


Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk
 

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Discussion Starter #260
What if I show you my secret setup that I never share with forum, it's been on for over 1 year and still works great not to mention you can tune sound and it's all off the shelf turbosmart stuff!
Sounds very interesting. I'd say start a thread on it then I'll definitely have questions.
 
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